Typography Fundamentals

Typography is one of the considerable knowledge and industry fields, based on typefaces. They are an integral part of any graphic design, publishing or typing projects. However, before clashing with fonts' choice that appears to a major issue in design, one should get acquainted with typography fundamentals, accumulated from famous typographers for centuries, including basic terms, styles and principles.

Typography is a primary integral part of any web0design project, as its main purpose is to carry information. In addition, it is an art of text decoration, so it could readable and beautiful at the same time.

Type family is usually mistaken for types or fonts. In sober fact, it is a group of fonts of the same origin, structure and image. It is a set of stylistically similar characters that you can write or print. Type family includes figures, letters and symbols. Font is a narrows concept, which is determined by several factors, such as size and style. In general, Arial is a type family, and Arial Bold is a font of this type family.

Serif fonts or Antiqua embraces all the fonts with small serifs at the top or at the bottom of their characters. They are strongly recommended for large text paragraphs because of their low readability. These are good for headlines and title lines. Serif fonts have been used since the Middle Ages period (for instance, one can pay attention to OldStyle Century). The characteristic feature: the part written at certain angle is usually thin. Beside Old Style Century, the group of old-fashioned Antiqua fonts embrace such type families (remember this term?) Centaur and Goudy Old Style.

The 18th century was a turning point in typography. It was a period of transitional serifs . The difference between wide and thin character lines is strongly visible, which may be observed in numerous fonts of the time – Baskerville, Times New Roman, Caslon, Bookman, Georgia, etc.

Later they were replaced with Slab serifs , which feature the same width of the lines.

Sans serifs or Grotesque fonts appeared at the end of the 18th century. There are four main types of sans serifs: grotesque fonts (Franklin Gothic) are very similar to serif fonts; Neo-Grotesque fonts (Arial. Helvetica), Humanist fonts (Optima, Verdana, Frutiger) are marked with thorough calligraphic letters and Geometric sans serifs are the most advanced modern fonts. The last ones include Metro, Futura, Eurostile, Rodchenko, etc.

There are also some other groups of fonts of equal importance, including Script and Decorative, but mostly they came from basic serifs and sans serif fonts .

4 Motorcycle Accessories to Add Your BMW GS Motorbike

The BMW GS series of motorbikes is seen as one of the most popular range of motorbikes in its class – the dual sport / adventure bikes. They are even extremely popular outside of their class, possibly losing out only to Japanese racing bikes and Harleys. If you own a BMW GS bike and have not yet taken it on overnight (or longer) trips, it's high time you do so because this is what they were built for. This article suggests five common accessories you can add to your bike, which you'll certainly appreciate regardless of whether or not you are already a seasoned adventure motorcyclist.

Motorbike Luggage carriers / panniers

Motorcycle luggage carriers are probably the first type of BMW GS accessories you should be looking at. Not much point in taking overnight trips if you can not carry any substantial amount of luggage with you, right? There are several options available:

Tankbags are placed just in front of you, between your seat and the handlebars. These are usually quite small bags, very convenient for storing items you need to get to quickly like your wallet or camera. Topcases are another option which are mounted on the back of the bike. You may or may not need to install a rack or adapter plate to hold the case, especially if you're installing a non BMW topcase.

BMW GS panniers or "side bags" as they are commonly called hang off the sides of the bike, at the back. Soft panners offer less protection to its contents, hold smaller volumes but are less bulky. Hard panniers are manufactured from metal (usually aluminum) can be costly and are definitely heavier and bulkier but usually offer excellent protection from crashes, water and dirt. They can sometimes hold up to 40L each, which ads the same capacity as a very large backpack right on the rear of your bike – get 'em if you can afford' em. If you can not fit all your stuff in a pair of these panners, a rollbag and tank bag then you seriously need to reconsider the amount of stuff you are taking.

Motorcycle Lights

Motorcycle lights are a useful addition which adds an element of safety to your riding experience. You can see better, and you're also seen better. Xenon headlights are available and these make your bike stand out more when you appear in other driver's mirrors – the extra visibility could save your life one day. Several companies manufacture additional light sets that are mounted on the front of bike, to be used in foggy or other low visibility conditions. These are ultra bright lights which allow you to see the road in front of you and any possible obstacles better.

Perhaps they should not be used only in low-vis conditions: I've heard car driver sympathetic to us motorcyclists say that (while being as attentive as they can) "I just do not notice bikes on the road. notice ONE light at all ". Anyone who drives a car through cities should be able to confirm this – a single light just does not stand out. A set of extra lights on the side of your bike results in a "triangle" of lights shining out of your bike: one main light with two extra lights below and to the side of it. If you've ever seen a big GS bike kitted out with this kind of setup you'll know what I mean. Although a little extravagant, these extra lights DO make you more visible in the rear view mirrors of car drivers. Hopefully they will realize a motorbike is approaching before the swerve out of their lane and nail you.

Finally, aftermarket brake lights are available that shine brighter and can be configured to blink or flash quickly when you brake. I'm not sure if they are legal, and they may be annoying to car drivers but they allow motorists driving behind you to notice you quick – very useful in case traffic slows down abruptly and you're worried about getting rear ended by inattentive drivers .

Aftermarket exhausts

Motorcycle exhausts are toys for the boys. They rarely offer practical improvements, other than a great rumbling sound for that extra satisfaction when you're revving the engine at a red light. It has to be said that aftermarket exhausts are usually also lighter than the OE ones and may save a couple of pounds in weight – who does not want a lighter bike? These exhausts usually also give you a little bump in horsepower – not as much as with aftermarket car exhausts, but maybe noticeable nonetheless. One thing to look out for is that exhaust does not get in the way of any panniers or pannier racks you have hanging off the side of the bike. Exhausts are not cheap but will only widen your grin and give your bike more of an individual character.

Fairing & windscreens

Motorcycle fairing is the "shell" that's placed over the frame at the front of the bike and is designed to reduce air drag. It improves the aerodynamics of the bike and protects you from wind blast and debris flying your way. Assuming you have not mounted a fridge sized box on the back of your BMW GS, its aerodynamics are probably good enough for overnight trips. However, the protection from wind and debris offers a substantial improvement. Modifying the fairing on BMW GS bikes is usually done by the real pros and in rally conditions, but casual travelers can seriously benefit from an extended windscreen which can save strain on your body and neck when driving at moderate to high speeds during highway cruising.

For the real fanatics, Touratech is able to convert your GS motorbike in to a fully fledged Paris – Dakar clone. Their "desertio" range of bikes renders the original GS bikes almost unrecognizable. Conversions like this come at a price, but if the environment is appropriate you'll appreciate these full on make-overs.

It's clear that adding BMW GS accessories to your bike are a great way to make your bike safer, unique, better looking and more travel-worthy.

Happy trials and ride safe!

Guide To Buying Gemstone Jewelry

Gemstone jewelry not only accessorizes your fashion choice, it also allows you to show off to your friends as the gemstone ring, earring or any other piece of gemstone you will be wearing is of high quality. For you to buy the right unit you need to consider a number of factors such as:

Color of gemstone

According to professionals, the color of the jewelry you choose determines 50-70% of the unit’s value. Gemstone jewelry comes in different colors and it’s up to you to choose the one that is ideal for you. For you to choose the right color jewelry you need to consider three main factors: Hue, tone and saturation.

Hue: It’s the basic color of the gemstone. When making the purchase, go for units that exhibit a pure color. If the jewelry has to have other colors, they should be minimal.

Tone: The tone represents the depth of a gemstone color. It can be light or dark. Professionals put the tone in different categories that include: light, medium light, medium, medium dark and dark.

There are some unscrupulous sellers that might try to sell you other items posing them as gemstone. If you are keen you can tell a real gemstone by simply looking at it. A real gemstone shouldn’t be too dark or too light. The unit should have a bright, rich look. To tell the real color of the jewelry you should look at it at different lights.

Clarity of the jewelry

Clarity describes the presence or absence of flaws inside or outside the gemstone. While it’s rare to get a flawless gemstone, you shouldn’t settle for one that is of poor clarity. While jewelry with a poor clarity is cheap, it’s not of much value to you as it will give you a poor, cheap look.

To tell the clarity of the unit that you are buying you should examine it from the top. If there isn’t a flaw, the flaw won’t show up in the face up position; therefore, it won’t affect the value and beauty of your unit. If you aren’t experienced at picking flaws, take the jewelry to a professional who will examine it under a microscope.

Cut of gemstone

A properly cut gemstone jewelry is beautiful to look at as it reflects light across its surface when you hold it up. If the unit has a cut that is too deep and narrow the surface area will be dark. If the cut is too shallow and wide, the jewelry will have parts of it washed out and lifeless. When making the purchase go for a unit with an ideal cut and desired shape. The jewelry that you go for should be symmetrical in all dimensions so that it appears balanced.

Conclusion

These are the few factors that you should consider when buying gemstone jewelry. To buy a real, high quality unit buy it from a reputable gemstone store.

How To Start An Internet Marketing Business The Right Way

Running your own Internet Marketing business is really the best way to make money in the world. You get to set your own hours. You can work from almost anywhere in the world. All of your efforts go towards your business and your success, rather than a large corporation's. You write your own paycheck. And I do not know of any business in the world where the start-up costs are so low (often as low as the cost of a monthly website fee), or the knowledge barrier is so small (in other trades, it can take YEARS to learn the basics).

The "problem" (and I only say it's a problem because it seems to discourage so many people) is that you have to treat your business like a business. Anyone can make a few dollars here and there online. But to get the kind of thousands-of-dollars-a-month success that lets you quit your day job and buy a larger house, you're going to have to put in some work upfront.

To illustrate what I'm talking about, let's look at a normal job: you go to work for a specified number of hours, and get paid a certain amount for those hours. If you're salaried, you get a certain amount per month or year no matter how much you work. Hopefully, if you do a good job you get a raise. In either case, you're guaranteed to make a certain amount within a specified time-frame.

With an Internet marketing business (as with any business) you have to do some things upfront: you have to set up a website and a few other tools, you have to promote your site or service, etc. This can take a bit of time before you see profits. The reason an Internet marketing business is the way to go is because (if you're doing things correctly) when you DO see the profit, you're going to be seeing a lot more of it. And because everything is semi-automated (the order-taking, often the delivery of goods, etc.) your business requires a LOT less time later on to sustain than an hourly job.

It's a actually a bit like growing a tree. To grow a tree you have to:

– Learn how to care for the tree you want to grow.

– Spend a little cash up front for some seeds or a sapling.

– Find a good place to plant your seeds or sapling. Make sure it's fertile ground and out of the shade of larger trees.

– Care for your tree as it grows. Keep it watered and fed.

– THEN, when it's bigger, harvest the fruit.

– Do minor upkeep on tree, keep harvesting fruit, plant new trees.

It's the same process with an Internet marketing business. Your sapling / seed is your business plan. and your basic tools such as a website, a mailing list, etc. Hunting for a good spot is your market research. Fertilizer and water are your promotional methods. And just like a tree, once it's up and running it requires a lot less care.

I'm not telling you all of this to discourage you. I just want you to understand that overnight profits are rare, and you can not count on them or you'll end up frustrated. And even overnight profits require planning. But if you're willing to do some basic set-up work and have the ability to focus and take action, you'll see more money than you could dream of an hourly or salaried job. Plus, being able to sleep in when you want is nice, too.

The three magic steps to making it all happen are:

– Step One: Learn how an internet marketing business works.

– Step Two: Make a plan for your business based on solid market research.

– Step Three: Follow through with the plan, one step at a time.

Just remember: shift your mental focus from "money right now" to "longterm, increasingly-large profits." You must treat your Internet marketing business like a business to be successful. And remember, take things one step at a time.